文章摘要
论莱布尼茨的自由思想
On Leibnizs Theory of Freedom
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 自由  选择  理性  抽象的自由  任意的自由  具体的自由
英文关键词: freedom  choice  rationality  abstract freedom  arbitrarily freedom  concrete freedom
基金项目:2012年度国家社科基金重大项目(12&ZD126)
作者单位
李育军 华中科技大学 哲学系湖北 武汉 430074 
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中文摘要:
      莱布尼茨将自由、选择和理性结合在一起来说明自由。首先,莱布尼茨将自由和选择联系在一起。他批判了决定论和抽象的自由,认为自由就是自由选择。第二,莱布尼茨将自由选择同理性结合在一起。他认为不管是神按照最好原则还是人按照最主要理由或快乐原则进行选择,这种包含了道德目的性的自由选择是建立在理性基础之上的。并且在他看来理性是人的本性,由此,莱布尼茨的自由理论事实上否证了黑格尔将自由看作是任意的自由的论断,他的自由触及到黑格尔的具体的自由层面。第三,他还在现实存在的层面上,从自由主体的角度出发指出人由于先天的不足而达不到建立在绝对理性基础上的自由,这种自由只有上帝才能拥有,但是人可以通过规范和练习趋向这种真正的自由。
英文摘要:
      Leibniz explained freedom by combination of choice and rationality. First of all, Leibniz put freedom and choice together. He criticized determinism and abstract freedom and considered that freedom is free choice. Second, Leibniz put freedom and rationality together. He regarded that whether Gods choice based on the principle of best or mans choice based on the principle of pleasure, those free choices that contain the normal purpose is based on rationality. Leibniz thought that rationality is human nature. Thus, Leibnizs theory of freedom denied Hegels assertion that Hegel treated Leibnizs freedom as arbitrarily freedom. His freedom reached to the level of Hegels concrete freedom. Third, he also pointed out, on the level of reality, from the perspective of free subject that people cant reach the freedom based on absolute rationality due to congenital lacking. God alone has this freedom, but people can tend to the real freedom by the specification and practice.
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