文章摘要
论《文子》德育思想
On the Morality Education Thoughts in Wenzi
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 《文子》  德育思想  
英文关键词: Wenzi  the morality education thought  doctrines
基金项目:陕西省社科基金项目(13A084);陕西省社科界重大理论与现实问题研究项目(2014Z71);西安市社科基金项目(14Z68)
作者单位
樊建武 西安科技大学 思政部陕西 西安 710054 
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中文摘要:
      先秦道家重要著作《文子》搭建了道与万物之间的桥梁,描述了道具有“虚无、平易、清静、柔弱、纯粹素朴”五个特性,提出“仁义为本”是治国之基、德政之要,指出德育是个体“虚心返初”和推行德仁义礼、实施德政的前提和基础。《文子》认为德育的目标是培养能够体道、悟道、得道、行道具有“心小、志大、智圆、行方、能多、事少”特点的圣人,提出了“明道知权”“智能兼备”的人才标准和“不以小恶妨大美”评价原则,并基于“自然”阐述了“无为而治”“不言之教”的育化方法,主张个体要“养形修身”,以养神为主做到淡泊寡欲、致虚守静、柔弱谦卑、守精保真;以养形为次做到“节”“适”“和”“便”,形成了系统的德育思想体系,推动了中国德育思想逐步摆脱神秘而迈入理性轨道。
英文摘要:
      Wenzi, the important work of the pre-Qin Taoism, builds a bridge between doctrines and all living things on the earth, describes that doctrines are characterized by “nihility, plainness, tranquility, gentleness and pure simplicity”, proposes that “benevolence and righteousness oriented” idea is both the base of governing the country and the essence of benevolent ruling, and indicates that the morality education is the premise and basis of “bringing an individuals modesty back”, pursuing benevolence and righteousness and carrying out the benevolent ruling. Wenzi also states that the purpose of moral education is to cultivate the sages who can experience, comprehend, acquire and practise the doctrines, characterized by “small heart, big ambition, great wisdom, good manners, many capabilities and few troubles”. It proposes the talent standard of “knowing the doctrines and understand the authority” and “having both wisdom and capabilities”, and the evaluation principle of “possessing the virtues regardless of the tiny wickedness”. Based on the “nature”, it elaborates the educational method of “governing by doing nothing that goes against the nature” and “setting an example with peoples own conducts”, and advocates that an individual should “cultivate both body and mind”, i.e. giving priority to mind cultivation, people should show indifference to fame and wealth, seek modesty and peace, become gentle and humble, keep perfect and faithful, while giving minority to the body cultivation, people should reach the state with restraint, adequacy and convenience. All the above have helped to form the systematic morality education thought and to drive it to gradually get rid of mystery and to step onto the rational track.
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